The St. Louis Airport Site Vicinity Properties (SLAPS VPs) are located in the cities of Hazelwood and Berkeley, Missouri. These properties include Coldwater Creek and its vicinity properties to the west; adjacent ballfields to the north and east; Norfolk and Western Railroad properties adjacent to Coldwater Creek; Banshee Road to the south; ditches to the north and south; and St. Louis Airport Authority property to the south. Also included are the transportation routes (haul roads) at the following locations: Latty Avenue, McDonnell Boulevard, Pershall Road, Hazelwood Avenue, Eva Avenue, Frost Avenue and other miscellaneous vicinity properties.
Low-level radioactive contamination at the SLAPS VPs is linked to both the St. Louis Airport Site and the Latty Avenue Properties. In 1966, Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago purchased uranium-bearing residues from the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and removed them from SLAPS. The company placed the residues in storage at Latty Avenue under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license. Over time, residues migrated from other sites or were deposited as the residues were hauled along transportation routes, contaminating the soils and sediments of the vicinity properties. In 1996, the volume of impacted soils, which are owned by commercial enterprises, private residences or local governments, was estimated at 195,000 cubic yards. Of the 148 SLAPS VPs (named and unnamed within the industrial boundaries of the North County ROD), 96 Vicinity Properties have been released to date.
An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis-Environmental Assessment for the proposed decontamination of properties in the vicinity of HISS was released to the public in spring 1992. In 1995, the EE/CA was approved with the modification that any soil excavated under the document be shipped to an out-of-state disposal facility. Between 1995 and 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) worked to remove contaminated soil from the road frontages of 30 VPs along Frost, Hazelwood and Latty Avenues. In October 1997, FUSRAP was transferred from DOE to USACE under the Energy and Water Appropriations Act. Cleanup activities continue to follow Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) guidelines and incorporate the values of the National Contingency Plan (NCP), which is short for National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. Other removal actions and environmental documentation undertaken since the approval of the EE/CA include:
1. In 1998, USACE removed and backfilled 450 cubic yards of contaminated soil and concrete in support of the city of Florissant's upgrade of the St. Denis Bridge over Coldwater Creek.
2. In 1999, 550 cubic yards of contaminated soil were removed from VP-56. USACE also renegotiated the St. Louis Utility Response Plan for all underground utilities affected by contamination from MED/AEC. USACE trained and supported all affected utility companies.
3. In March 2000, excavation of contaminated materials from a portion of SLAPS VP-38 on SuperValu Inc. property commenced pursuant to the 1992 EE/CA developed by DOE. Approximately 5,000 cubic yards of radioactively contaminated materials were excavated and transported out-of-state for disposal at a permitted and licensed facility in Idaho. Analysis indicated that the entire floor of the excavated area met the cleanup and release criteria. However, only the west and northwest walls of the excavated area met these criteria. Residual soil concentrations in the other walls were determined to be in excess of the removal action goals, and, as a result, these walls weren't released. Areas of the walls that weren't released were covered with geotextile material. Placement of clean backfill in the excavated area and against the geotextile material was completed in June 2000. Currently, the USACE field project office complex and on-site laboratory facility are located on the remediated portion of VP-38.
4. In July 2000, the FUSRAP Project Offices were relocated from 9170 Latty Ave. to 8945 Latty Ave. to provide more operating room for heavy construction equipment removing the nearby HISS piles.
USACE's primary goals for the SLAPS VPs are to restrict the release of contaminated materials and minimize potential impacts to human health, wildlife and the environment. Its secondary goal is to restore the SLAPS VPs for potential reuse.
In August 2002, USACE offered a two-day training session to members of the public to familiarize people with technical processes and terms used to accomplish FUSRAP work. The training, targeted at SLAPS VP owners, was limited to general information and didn't identify or discuss final cleanup alternatives that were still under development at the time. About 50 people from widely varied backgrounds attended the training session.
In 2002, USACE supported a property owner's plans to construct a warehouse on the western portion of VP-27. Surveys detected a small area of contamination consisting of 124 cubic yards of contaminated soil, which were subsequently removed from the property. Contaminated materials were transported by covered gondola cars for disposal at an out-of-state licensed or properly permitted facility.
In accordance with CERCLA requirements, a five-year review was initiated in January 2003 to ensure that human health and the environment are being protected by the response action being implemented. A team led by USACE and including representatives from the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) documented conditions at each site and the surrounding area. In addition, members of the community were contacted for their views about the cleanup process to date. USACE released the draft report documenting the findings of the review in September 2003.
In early 2003, USACE collected samples from SLAPS, SLAPS VPs, HISS/Latty Avenue VPs, Futura and Coldwater Creek. USACE chose to develop cleanup alternatives to address all of these sites. Accordingly, USACE conducted a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment on Coldwater Creek. Cleanup alternatives for the North St. Louis County sites, identified in the Feasibility Study (FS) and Proposed Plan (PP), were released for public review in May 2003. Comments on the documents were accepted through July 14, 2003. The final cleanup remedy is outlined in the Record of Decision for the North St. Louis County, Missouri Sites (SLAPS, HISS/Latty Avenue and SLAPS VPs).
· In September 2005, the North County Record of Decision (ROD) was signed. Previous to the ROD, all work that was conducted under the EE/CA and Action Memorandum (USACE 1999) was removal actions. Work conducted under the NC ROD (USACE 2005) is a remedial action.
The Record of Decision (ROD) presented the Final Remedy for the site (as opposed to the EE/CA, which presented an interim action.) The ROD, which addressed not only the St. Louis Airport Site, but the Latty Avenue Site and the SLAPS Vicinity Properties Site as well, was the result of USACE investigations and CERCLA planning activities which had been occurring concurrent with the EE/CA removal action at SLAPS. USACE developed cleanup alternatives and presented them to the public for review in the FS and PP in May 2003. Comments on the documents were accepted through July 14, 2003. The public’s input was considered and a final ROD (Record of Decision for the North St. Louis County Sites, dated Sept. 2, 2005) was issued in September 2005. The final remedy consisted of excavation to achieve remediation goals:
- Top 6-inch layer averaged over any area 100 m2: 5 pCi/g Ra-226/14 pCi/g Th-230/50 pCi/g U-238 above background;
- Subsurface soil (below the top 6 inches) averaged over any area 100 m2 and averaged over a 6-inch thick layer of soil: 15 pCi/g Ra-226/15 pCi/g Th-230/50 pCi/g U-238 above background;
- Sediment below the mean water gradient will be removed if radionuclide concentrations averaged over any area of 100 m2: 15 pCi/g Ra-226/43 pCi/g Th-230/150 pCi/g of U-238 above background.
- All accessible contaminated soils/material will be disposed of off-site at a properly permitted facility.
Site Progress 2005 to present
Before any actions are performed on a FUSRAP property, a Pre-Design Investigation (PDI) is performed. The PDI summarizes the existing/historical data, defines additional analytical data needs and determines if residual radiological contamination above the ROD remediation goals (RGs) are present on the property. Once the property has been sampled and completely characterized, a Pre-Design Investigation Report (PDIR) is prepared that documents the results of the PDI activities that were performed at the property.
If the data presented in the PDIR meets ROD RGs, a Final Status Survey Evaluation (FSSE) is then performed.
A Final Status Survey Evaluation (FSSE) provides detailed information regarding:
(1) the survey process for soil and structures (including the design, methodology, and approach for area-weighted averaging);
(2) the assessment of survey results for soil and structures (including statistical tests and data quality);
(3) an assessment of residual risk and dose; and
An FSSE is conducted (at the St. Louis FUSRAP Sites) to ensure that any residual radioactivity complies with the criteria specified in the ROD (USACE 2005) for protecting human health and the environment.
If a property meets the ROD RGs during the PDIR/FSSE process, the property can be released. USACE prepares a PDIR/FSSE for that property.
Several Vicinity Properties, or VPs, have been released under the PDIR/FSSE process.
· 2008 – VPs 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30 and 31 (Frost Avenue)
· 2009 – VPs 17, 18, 19, 20, 20A and 25 (southwest Frost Avenue)
· 2009 – VPs 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52 (northeast Hazelwood Avenue)
· 2010 – VPs 33, 34 and 37 (Hazelwood Avenue)
· 2011 – VPs 3 and 4 (McDonnell Boulevard)
The data in the PDIR can also demonstrate that the property doesn't meet ROD RGs and must be remediated. A Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (RD/RAWP) is prepared to remediate the property. The remediation is completed when the property meets the FSSE.
A Post-Remedial Action Plan (PRAR) document is prepared when remedial activities are completed on a property. The PRAR documents the history, the site conditions and the response actions that occurred on a property. The collection of individual PRARs for each portions of the site will be used as the supporting documentation for development of the Final Close-Out Report.
After remedial activities are completed and the property meets the ROD RGs, properties are released under a PRAR/FSSE.
VP 27 – (Frost Avenue and Romiss Court) This VP was previously remediated in 2002 under a utility support. (See previous description.)
The City of Hazelwood notified USACE regarding road improvements and widening Hazelwood Avenue from Frost Avenue to Pershall Road. USACE decided to start remediation activities along Hazelwood Avenue and the adjacent vicinity properties before the City of Hazelwood began the road improvement project.
Hazelwood Avenue was used as a haul route transporting uranium-bearing residuals from the St. Louis Airport Site on McDonnell Boulevard. Contamination along Hazelwood Avenue and the adjacent rights-of-way (ROWs) and VPs occurred as a result of soil spillage from transport vehicles. As a result of characterization sampling and investigations along Hazelwood Avenue, 12 areas required remediation to estimated depths ranging from 1 to 3 feet below ground surface. A total of 1,000 cubic yards was excavated from the VPs, the ROWs and Hazelwood Avenue, and shipped to a licensed out-of-state disposal facility.
In 2010, USACE issued the PRAR/FSSE to release Hazelwood Avenue, the ROWs and
VPs 32, 35, 35A, 36, 39, 40, 42 and 47.
In 2011, USACE released the PRAR/FSSE for the following properties:
(Disposal of contaminated material is shipped to a licensed out-of-state disposal facility.)
· VPs 5 and 6 (McDonnell Boulevard) – 42 cubic yards excavated
· VPs 8 and 9 (McDonnell Boulevard) – 252 cubic yards excavated
· VP 53 (Pershall Road) – 104 cubic yards removed
· VP 54 (Pershall Road) – 65 cubic yards removed
· VP 55 (Pershall Road) – 228 cubic yards removed
· VP 63 (Lindbergh Boulevard, the old Ford Plant) – 70 cubic yards removed.
2012 to 2013 Remedial Activities
Presently, remedial activities are ongoing at:
· IA-9 (Ballfields) - The Ballfields area consists of approximately 60 acres in Berkeley, Missouri. The property is located north of St. Louis Lambert International Airport, once known as Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, and bounded to the north by McDonnell Boulevard, to the east by Eva Avenue, to the north by Frost Avenue and to the west by Coldwater Creek. Historically, the property was used for agricultural land and a baseball-field complex, and it was also a part of what was once Brown Road. Contamination of the Ballfields occurred when residues migrated from SLAPS via run-off onto adjacent properties through Coldwater Creek or was windblown, released or otherwise deposited when material was transported along haul routes. The northern portion of the Ballfields is currently used by the City of Berkeley as a shooting range; the remainder of the property isn't in use.
The remediation of the Ballfields is being completed in three phases. Phase 1 included the east portion of the Ballfields area along Eva Avenue, IA-08 North Ditch (east portion), IA-09 North Ditch (east portion) and Eva Road. This area is situated on the east side of the area drainage divide and comprises approximately 25 acres. USACE completed Phase 1 in 2012 and removed 11,085 cubic yards of contaminated material from Phase 1. Remediation in Phase 2 (17 acres) is ongoing. Phase 2 includes the ballfields central portion, IA-08 North Ditch central portion, IA-09 North Ditch central portion and Ballfields north of IA-09 western portion. USACE is preparing the Phase 2B remedial design plan to remediate 11 acres directly adjacent to the west side of the initial Phase 2. Phase 2B consists of Investigation Area (IA)-09: Ballfields (western portion), IA-08: North Ditch (western portion) and IA-09: North Ditch (western portion).
· VP-16/Eva Loadout (McDonnell and Eva Road) – Remedial activities are ongoing and almost completed.
· IA-10 – USACE is completing the characterization of IA-10, the area north of the Ballfields adjacent to CWC. Additional samples are needed to identify areas that need additional remediation. A part of IA-10 adjacent to McDonnell Boulevard and CWC was remediated in 2011; a total of 2,939 cubic yards were removed.
Coldwater Creek (CWC) is a SLAPS VP. CWC flows adjacent to SLAPS, the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and Futura sites through the communities of Berkeley, Hazelwood, Florissant, Black Jack and Spanish Lake to where it empties into the Missouri River.
Coldwater Creek has been divided into four reaches. Reach A extends from SLAPS to Pershall Road, Reach B from Pershall Road to Bruce Drive, Reach C from Bruce Drive to Old Halls Ferry Road, and Reach D from Old Halls Ferry Road to the Missouri River. The Creek also consists of several tributaries.
Potential radiological contamination in CWC can be attributed to the prior storage of uranium processing residues and wastes at SLAPS and subsequently at HISS. These wastes resulted from the uranium-ore processing activities at Mallinckrodt in the 1940s and 1950s. The potential movement of contamination into the creek would have occurred by wind and water. The wastes consist of low-level radioactive contamination commingled with metals from uranium-processing activities.
The approach to CWC is to first eliminate the sources of contamination. USACE completed the remediation of SLAPs (2007) and HISS/Futura (2012). USACE is currently remediating properties adjacent to CWC from upstream to downstream.
In 1998, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) removed contamination from the creek to support the City of Florissant’s upgrade of the St. Denis Bridge over CWC. In 2005, contamination in CWC was removed as part of the cleanup at SLAPS. USACE removed contamination from a tributary to CWC during remediation activities at HISS/Futura.
In 1998, USACE developed a plan to monitor the water and sediments of CWC in Reach A. Six locations along CWC are sampled twice a year to ensure the creek isn't contaminated during remedial actions at adjacent properties.
Recent and Future Sampling Events
Several sampling events have taken place in CWC by DOE and USACE. However several data gaps still exist. As part of the plan to work from upstream to downstream, USACE is developing sampling plans for the creek. The purpose of the sampling is to confirm that the creek meets ROD cleanup requirements or to identify/quantify any material requiring removal in order to meet these requirements. If remediation is required, the sediment/soil will be removed and shipped to an offsite permitted disposal facility in accordance with the North County ROD.
· In 2012 to 2013, USACE initiated characterizing/sampling of CWC from McDonnell Boulevard to Frost Avenue. Sampling was completed in March 2013, but additional sampling is needed to bound areas that may need remediation.
· USACE completed the initial sampling of Coldwater Creek and adjacent properties from Frost Avenue to the St. Denis Bridge in 2016. Currently, USACE is sampling the next 1-mile stretch of CWC and adjacent properties from St. Denis Bridge to St. Ferdinand Park. USACE is also performing additional delineation sampling at areas where contamination was found above ROD remedial goals (RGs) at CWC and adjacent properties from Pershall Road to St. Denis Bridge. USACE completed sampling of St. Ferdinand Park in 2016 and found no contamination above ROD RGs.
· A future sampling plan will characterize CWC from the St. Denis Bridge to the Missouri River.
Pre-Design Investigation Work Plan for Coldwater Creek from Frost Avenue to St. Denis Bridge Rev 0
Pre-Design Investigation Report for Coldwater Creek McDonnell Boulevard to Frost Ave Rev 0
Pre-Design Investigation Summary Report for Coldwater Creek from McDonnell Boulevard to Frost Avenue Rev 0