US Army Corps of Engineers
St. Louis District

More about FUSRAP

Protect human health and the environment.

Execute the approved alternative for cleaning up the radioactive contamination above health-based cleanup guidelines.

Minimize adverse impacts on residents and area business operations.

Return sites for appropriate beneficial use.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
St. Louis District 
FUSRAP Project Office
114 James S. McDonnell Blvd.
Hazelwood, MO 63042



Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

The Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP) is a secured, operational, Army-owned facility located on approximately 19,100 acres near Burlington in Des Moines County in southeastern Iowa. During its use as an Army facility, portions of IAAAP were occupied by tenant organizations, including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). 

From 1947 to 1975, the AEC operated areas of the plant as the Burlington Atomic Energy Commission Plant (BAECP). In 2002 a Preliminary Assessment was completed for BAECP, and IAAAP was included in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Evidence of a release was found in several areas. Two areas (Line 1 and the West Burn Pads South Area) were already investigated under other Army programs, but remedial action remained. In March 2013, FUSRAP completed remediation work at Operable Unit (OU) 1 (Soils OU) in Line 1 and West Burn Pads (WBP) Area South of the Road (ASOTR) under the Army Record of Decision (ROD) Soils (August 1998), except for explosive-contaminated soils above Remedial Goals (RGs) underneath Building 1-70. At that time, it was determined to suspend further remedial action at this site pending the planned demolition of this structure.

Other areas at the plant required additional investigation, which was accomplished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as part of a Remedial Investigation. The RI, which was completed in August 2008, identified three areas (the Firing Site area and Yards C and G) for further evaluation in the Feasibility Study. Contamination consisted of depleted uranium. Alternatives to address the DU contamination were presented in the Feasibility Report and a Record of Decision was completed in September 2011. The selected remedy consists of (1) the excavation and sorting of DU-contaminated soil with off-site shipment to a properly permitted disposal facility and (2) decontamination of structural surfaces in two buildings at Line 1. The primary regulators/stakeholders include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Iowa Departments of Public Health and Natural Resources, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (Army) and local residents. The site was placed on the National Priority List in 1990.

The selected remedy implements a soil-sorting process system. During excavation of soils contaminated with DU, this sorting process is used to separate soils that are contaminated with DU from soils that aren't. This process reduces the amount of material that must be shipped off-site to an approved disposal facility. On-site soil that isn't DU-contaminated is used as backfill material, which reduces overall project cost. The construction season at IAAAP is approximately eight months from April to November.

When construction of the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant was completed in 1942, it was known as the Iowa Ordnance Plant (IOP). In 1947, the IOP was selected as the first production facility for the manufacture of high-explosive components for weapons under the AEC. From 1947 to 1975, portions of the IAAAP facility were under AEC control for research, development and production of materials and components as part of the U.S. early atomic program. The AEC-operated portions of the plant were commonly called the Burlington Atomic Energy Commission Plant (BAECP).

In the late 1960s, it was determined that AEC operations at BAECP would be phased out and consolidated at the Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. BAECP closed in July 1975 and control of the areas reverted to the IOP under direction of the Army. Later, the plant name was changed from IOP to IAAAP, as it is referred to today.

In 1974, the Department of Energy (DOE) created FUSRAP to address sites used during the United States’ early atomic energy program that had residual contamination exceeding current regulatory limits.

In 1989, IAAAP was proposed for inclusion on the National Priority List (NPL) pursuant to Section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986; it was added in 1990. In September 1990, the Army and EPA Region VII entered into a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA, also called “Army FFA”) to define the roles and responsibilities for the Army’s CERCLA activities at IAAAP and the process for interagency coordination.

IAAAP was placed under the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Installation Restoration Program (IRP), which manages CERCLA activities to identify, investigate and mitigate past hazardous-waste disposal practices that may have contributed to the release of pollutants into the environment at U.S. Army installations/facilities. Past munitions production has resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater as well as discharges of waste water containing explosives to surface water. Response actions conducted by the Army at IAAAP under IRP are ongoing and separate from response actions conducted by USACE under FUSRAP.

In 1997, a congressional action transferred FUSRAP responsibility from the Department of Energy (DOE) to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act.

In March 2000, after performing historical research regarding AEC activities at IAAAP, DOE provided USACE with a determination that the portions of IAAAP utilized by the BAECP area may contain contamination resulting from activities that supported the nation’s early atomic energy program.

Numerous environmental investigations have been conducted at IAAAP, both under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) and the Installation Restoration Program (IRP). A September 2000 report to the Congressional Defense Committee concluded that evidence of radiological contamination at Line 1 was uncovered and evidence of radiological contamination at FS-6 and FS-12 was uncovered.

Another report written in November of 2000 by the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory was titled “Results of the Indoor Radiological Survey of Iowa Army Ammunition Plant; Middletown, Iowa” and concluded that contamination in Building 1-11 and at Firing Site 12 was likely attributable to AEC activities. This report also stated that contamination in Building 1-12 could have been the result of either AEC or Army activities.

In April 2001, a gamma walkover survey and soil-sampling survey were performed at Firing Sites 6 and 12, finding non-uniform dispersion primarily located on or near chunks identified as depleted uranium (DU) throughout Firing Site 12, with two spots located at Firing Site 6.

The Preliminary Assessment Report of IAAAP was completed in December of 2001 and found that further investigation was warranted to determine the nature and extent of AEC-associated contamination.

In August 2006, a Federal Facility Agreement to address the FUSRAP project at IAAAP was executed among USACE, DOE, the EPA and the state of Iowa.

St. Louis District, USACE, completed a Remedial Investigation report of IAAAP in October 2008, sampling the following areas for possible AEC contamination: firing sites area (five subareas); Yards G, C, L, E and F; an area west of Line 5B; and Warehouse 3-01. The conclusion reached during the Remedial Investigation was that, of the eight areas, only the Firing Sites exhibited potential human health risks.
Currently, the Army and USACE are performing cleanup simultaneously on IAAAP, with the Army remediating contaminants resulting from munitions production under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) and USACE remediating contaminates resulting from the atomic energy program under FUSRAP.

The Feasibility Study (FS) for IAAAP was completed April 22, 2011. This study identified, developed and evaluated the remedial-action alternatives for remediating AEC contaminates.

The Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation was available for a 30-day public review at the Burlington Library and online starting April 22, 2011. A public meeting was held May 17, 2011, at the Comfort Suites Hotel and Conference Center in Burlington, Iowa, to present the FS/PP to members of the community. In the PP, USACE recommended Alternative 4, Excavation of DU-Contaminated Soil with Physical Treatment and Off-Site Disposal, along with Alternative S3, Decontamination/Replacement of Structures.

The FUSRAP Record of Decision (OU8 ROD) was completed in September 2011. This ROD outlines the remedial activities that will be undertaken at IAAAP to address contamination resulting from AEC activities. The OU8 ROD selected remedy included Alternative 4, Excavation of DU-Contaminated Soil with Physical Treatment and Off-Site Disposal, along with Alternative S3, Decontamination/Replacement of Structures.  The main components of the remedy include:

·          Excavation of DU-contaminated soil at Firing Sites 1 and 2; Firing Sites 3, 4 and 5; the Firing Site 6 Area; and the Firing Site 12 Area;

·          Physical treatment of DU-contaminated soil excavated via soil sorting;

·          Decontamination of structural surfaces and/or replacement of structural components (e.g., Building 1-11 floor grate and Building 1-63-6 air filters);

·          Disposal of DU-contaminated materials at a properly permitted off-site facility.

The Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (RD/RAWP) was completed in February 2013. The RD/RAWP outlines a comprehensive process that follows the governing CERCLA and FFA requirements for implementing the selected remedy in the OU8 ROD. Work began under this RD/RAWP in summer 2013. The Pilot Study for soil-sorting method has been completed, and the excavation of the Firing Sites Areas has begun. Decontamination of the buildings at Line 1 was completed in July 2015.

In 2008, it was determined that the soil in two of the FUSRAP areas (Line 1 and West Burn Pads South of the Road) was specifically covered in the existing Army Records of Decision (OU1 Soils RODs). As a result, these areas required remediation by FUSRAP under the authority of the Army RODs as directed by the EPA.

Under the Army RODs, USACE has disposed of more than 30,000 cubic yards of contaminated material from Line 1 and the West Burn Pads South of the Road. USACE continues this remediation effort at Line 1. Remediation has been completed at West Burn Pads South of the Road. The Remedial Action Closeout Report will be issued once all FUSRAP activities within the Army RODs have been completed.

The Administrative Record, which contains the documentation used to select the response action, is available at the following locations:

Burlington Public Library
210 Court St.
Burlington, IA 52601

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District
FUSRAP Project Office
8945 Latty Ave.
Berkeley, MO 63134

Proposed Plan for the IAAAP
Feasibility Study for the IAAAP
Iowa Administrative Record
Final Record of Decision
FFA with Appendices - text only (79 pages) Signature pages (four pages)

Map of Areas covered by FFA (one page)

Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Annual Environmental Monitoring Data and Analysis Report for Calendar Year 2017 

Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Annual Environmental Monitoring Data and Analysis Report for Calendar Year 2016 

Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Annual Environmental Monitoring Data and Analysis Report for Calendar Year 2015 

Five-Year Review Report: Five-Year Review Report for Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Iowa Army Ammunition Plant  




Daniel O'Connor, Remedial Project Manager

U.S. EPA-Region 7
901 North Fifth St.
Kansas City, KS 66101

Pamela Houston, Community Involvement Coordinator

U.S. EPA-Region 7
901 North Fifth St.
Kansas City, KS 66101


FFA Locations

Burlington Public Library
501 North Fourth St.
Burlington, IA 52601

(319) 753-1647

Danville City Hall
105 West Shepherd St.
Danville, IA 52623

Lee County Health Department
2218 Ave. H
Fort Madison, IA 52627

EPA Record Center
901 North Fifth St.
Kansas City, KS 66101